Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD),</strong> ISSN 2152-0801, is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an open access, online-only journal; all readers may download, share, or print any articles as long as proper attribution is given, in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> en-US <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> (Publisher and Editor in Chief: Duncan Hilchey) (Managing Editor: Amy Christian) Tue, 25 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0700 OJS 60 IN THIS ISSUE: More Than Value$ in the Food System <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>In this jam-packed summer issue of JAFSCD, we offer over 300 pages of commentaries, <em>Voices from the Grassroots</em> essays, and peer-reviewed papers, including a special transdisciplinary take on values in the food system by a team of authors from the University of Vermont. On the whole, the scholarly research and voices from practitioners in the field in this issue paint a stark and yet sometimes heartening picture about the future of food and agriculture on our planet. But the warnings are clear and we need to heed them.</p> <p>However, first I extend our condolences to those who have lost loved ones and colleagues to the pandemic. The United State has just surpassed 200,000 deaths and 7,000,000 cases in its ongoing, vain experiment to prove that freedom and wealth—rather than science and cooperation—are the solutions to our planetary problems. Are the cries of the hungry and scared and the anguish of struggling farmers being heard above the political din? Meanwhile, as many of us face serious challenges, large corporations quietly go about their business playing both sides (food producers and the hungry) against the middle, and quality of life in the world’s richest nation continues to decline. . . .</p> Duncan Hilchey Copyright (c) 2020 The Author Mon, 21 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Toward a Model of Food Sovereignty in Egypt and Tunisia <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Food sovereignty,” write Habib Ayeb and Ray Bush, “is a framework and set of policy praxis that prioritises the principle and policies to deliver food as a human right rather than as just another com­modity exchanged for cash or kind. People’s sur­vival depends on growing and distrib­uting food, which can only be provided in a sustainable way if it is made part of national and public sovereignty” (2019, p. 150). This insight lands with particular poignancy in the context of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, when urban and rural communities across the globe face issues of food access and agricultural laborers are con­stantly exposed to COVID threats in order to continue supplying consumers with produce (Wozniacka, 2020). Ayeb and Bush’s monograph thus centers around food sovereignty, a concept which advocates for not only access to food, but the ability of producers and consumers to partici­pate in decisions around what is produced and how it is produced and consumed (La Via Campesina, 2003). . . .</p> Jennifer Shutek Copyright (c) 2020 The Author Mon, 21 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Growing Food, Growing a Movement <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Most U.S. farmers and farm owners are white, while most farmworkers are Latinx immi­grants. This timely book uncoils the history, insti­tutions, and politics that racialize farming in America and the growing number of immigrant farmers—primarily small-scale and Mexican—who have climbed the agricultural ladder despite the crushing barriers they face. Author Laura-Anne Minkoff-Zern deftly spells out the social, political, and cultural influences that built racism and anti-immi­grant practices directly into the structure of Ameri­can agriculture. She then enriches the picture with the stories of 70 interviewed immigrant farm­ers who operate within this structure; excerpts from her interviews are spotlighted throughout the book. Additional interviews with agricultural sup­port and outreach programs emphasize how immi­grant farmers are often excluded from start-up capital, land access, and farmers market access. The storytelling element, paired with Minkoff-Zern’s first-person perspectives and reactions, enliven each chapter and extricate the book from a purely scholarly work into an engaging read on immigra­tion, race, and agriculture. . . .</p> Claire Seda Copyright (c) 2020 The Author Mon, 21 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Introduction to the Special Issue: More Than Value$ in the Food System <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>This special issue draws attention to the diverse values applied to, embedded in, and emerging from food systems. Although scholarship has long rec­ognized that a range of values is at play in food systems—and the <em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em> has been paramount to showcasing this type of research—the dominant perspective continues to elevate a highly central­ized model that prioritizes the values of maximi­za­tion (of yield and profit) above all else. Yield and profit are no doubt important, but the unparalleled emphasis they receive obscures the other important social and environmental values that inform how and why people engage in food systems. As so many food system scholars have previously articu­lated, what we need for relevant, inclusive, and effective policies are accurate representations of food systems and the actors who construct and maintain them. The position of this special issue is that transdisciplinary research is critical to ask and answer questions about values in ways that embrace complexity. . . .</p> Daniel Tobin, Emily Belarmino, Jane Kolodinsky Copyright (c) 2020 Daniel Tobin, Emily H. Belarmino, Jane Kolodinsky Mon, 21 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Helping Farmers with Continuation Planning for Cost-Offset Community Supported Agriculture to Low-Income Families <p>To improve low-income families’ access to fresh local produce, some farmers offer subsidized or “cost-offset” community supported agriculture (CO-CSA) shares. We evaluated a structured planning and implementation process conducted during the final intervention year of the Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids (F3HK) study, which aimed to help participating farmers (<em>N</em>=12) to sustain a CO-CSA program after study funding ended. The process included training webinars, planning tools to develop CO-CSA continuation funding and recruitment strategies, regional coach­ing teams to provide technical assistance, and peri­odic group conference calls to facilitate shared learning among F3HK farmers. Our evaluation explored the content of farmers’ CO-CSA contin­u­ation plans, their experiences during implementa­tion, their opinions about the planning process, and their future plans regarding their CO-CSA. We found that F3HK farmers used diverse methods to plan, recruit, and raise funds, with each farm adapt­ing strategies to fit their local conditions and farm business. Many farmers found success with word-of-mouth advertising and CSA member donations. Yet lack of farm resources—time, money, and ex­pertise—was a continual barrier to moving for­ward. As with full price CSAs, reciprocity was a key factor: farmers needed to consider the needs and preferences of low-income consumers, and CO-CSA members needed to understand their financial responsibility to the farmer. In general, F3HK farmers appreciated the continuation planning pro­cess, but expressed a desire for more technical assistance with grant writing. Farmers were com­mitted to the success of the CO-CSA continuation planning process, and most intended to continue the CO-CSA the following year.</p> Marilyn Sitaker, Mackenzie McCall, Jane Kolodinsky, Weiwei Wang, Alice Ammerman, Kristin Bulpitt, Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Karla Hanson, Leah Volpe, Rebecca Seguin-Fowler Copyright (c) 2020 Marilyn Sitaker, Mackenzie McCall, Jane Kolodinsky, Weiwei Wang, Alice Ammerman, Kristin Bulpitt, Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Karla Hanson, Leah Volpe, Rebecca Seguin-Fowler Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Farm Fresh Food Boxes <p>The Farm Fresh Food Box (F3B) project is a mar­ket innovation that aims to capitalize on successful characteristics of direct-to-consumer (DTC), values-based supply chains (VBSCs), and tradi­tional supply chains with the goals of expand­ing producer sales and improving rural food access. In the F3B model, farmers sell boxes of fresh pro­duce in rural retail outlets to bring food to custo­mers with limited access to locally grown foods. We present pilot findings on indicators of relation­ship quality, communication of embedded value, and food environment, and compare these with extant research to assess whether F3B behaves like a DTC, VBSC, a traditional supply chain, or some­thing else entirely. Unlike much of the previous value-chain research, this work places a unique emphasis on the importance of the <em>farmer-retailer</em> relationship. We merge existing knowledge of DTC strategies and barriers with those of VBSCs and traditional supply chains to understand better the process of expanding into new outlets and con­sumer populations. We find that while the F3B model reduces some resource constraints, it adds a layer of complexity that requires time and expertise to develop a quality relationship between producers and retailers. Additionally, it is apparent that the F3B model must be tailored to fit local contexts of farmers and retailers participating in F3B market innovations.</p> Lauren Greco, Jane Kolodinsky, Marilyn Sitaker, Lisa Chase, David Conner, Hans Estrin, Diane Smith, Julia Van Soelen Kim Copyright (c) 2020 Lauren Greco, Jane Kolodinsky, Marilyn Sitaker, Lisa Chase, David Conner, Hans Estrin, Diane Smith, Julia Van Soelen Kim Thu, 17 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Poetic Expressions of Transdisciplinary Food Systems Collaborations <p>Transdisciplinary research, involving scholars and practitioners from a variety of fields, disciplines, and experiences, helps identify and explore the dynamic, multidimensional intersections among food systems challenges. While a valuable practice for exploring the food system in a meaningful way, transdisciplinary research in and of itself is a complex collaborative process. To support efforts for transdisciplinary approaches to food systems challenges, the Food Systems department at the University of Vermont sponsored a two-day workshop. This article uses poetic transcription drawn from participants’ written evaluation of the workshop to analyze and share themes in experi­ences with transdisciplinary research and collabora­tions. The results, presented in a set of poems, promote conversation and understanding around the importance of transdisciplinary collaborations, as well as their challenges and opportunities for food systems.</p> Sarah Heiss, Kerry Daigle, Jane Kolodinsky Copyright (c) 2020 Sarah Heiss, Kerry Daigle, Jane Kolodinsky Thu, 17 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 From Online Cart to Plate <p>Amazon’s 2017 purchase of Whole Foods Market seemed to suddenly make this commercial giant a notable player in food retail. However, as we demonstrate below, this development was neither sudden nor surprising. Amazon’s business strategy has paved the way both for this acquisition, and for the other surreptitious ways in which it is chipping its way into food retail. We argue that these developments are motivated by Amazon’s goal of becoming a one-stop-shop for all consumer goods for as many customers as possible, which would in turn allow Amazon to expand as the key global broker for consumer data. Although Amazon’s tactics have little to do with food itself, the implications to food retail and more generally to food systems around the globe could be momentous.</p> Carly Livingstone, Irena Knezevic Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors Tue, 01 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Conceptualizing the Nexus of Migration and Food Security during COVID-19 <p>Migration has been a part of the livelihood strategy and risk diversification to relieve crises. Food insecu­rity as a consequence as well as a cause of migration demands review during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper is an attempt to explore the dynamics and vulnerabilities that ensue from the nexus of migra­tion, food security, and COVID-19, as the economic crisis of COVID-19 seems more intensive when viewed through a migration lens. The vulnerability of the economy based on food imports and remit­tances is heightened by COVID-19. The whole nexus of migration and food security has shifted; even the positive aspects of migration are predisposed to vulnerabilities.</p> Manoj Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 The Author Tue, 01 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Beyond COVID-19: Turning Crisis to Opportunity in Nigeria through Urban Agriculture <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) all over the world, countries have tried several strategies to minimize its impacts on their citizens and the economy. The first case in Nigeria was reported on February 27, 2020, and since then the infection has been spreading like wildfire, making Nigeria one of the three most affected African countries in Africa and the most affected in West Africa (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO], 2020-a). To slow down its pace, governments at all levels have taken measures to curb its impacts. Measures taken include mandating social distancing, curfews, and, in some cases, complete lockdowns. The lockdown of virtually all sectors of the economy, especially the agricultural sector, has exacerbated food shortages in the country, espe­cially among urban dwellers. Unfortunately, agriculture in most developing countries is highly related to physical, rather than mechanized, labor. The labor shortage due to movement restrictions (both intra- and interstate) and social distancing as a result of COVID-19 are starting to affect agricultural producers in the hinterlands, thus worsening the food supply to urban centers that are coincidentally the epicenters of the disease.</p> Adeniyi Gbadegesin, Bolanle Olajiire-Ajayi Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors Wed, 26 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0700