Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD),</strong> ISSN 2152-0801, is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an open access, online-only journal; all readers may download, share, or print any articles as long as proper attribution is given, in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems, a project of the Center for Transformative Action en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> The Political and Legislative History that Underlies the Farm Bill https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/703 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>In <em>The Fault Lines of Farm Policy,</em> Jonathan Coppess explores the evolution of the farm bill through the political and congressional interests representing the United States’ three main com­modity production regions: the South, the Mid­west, and the Great Plains. Coppess combines analysis of his direct involvement in the legislative and executive branches’ farm bills in 2008 and 2014 with exten­sive historical, contemporary political, and legisla­tive analyses in his current academic role. Coppess served in the U.S. Senate and at the U.S. Depart­ment of Agriculture (USDA) from 2006 to 2013. These rich descriptions explain the underpinnings of congressional efforts and identify the drivers of American farm policy development. . . .</p> Sheila Fleischhacker ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-09 2019-07-09 9 1 1 2 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.005 The Capitalist Diet: Energy-dense and Profitable https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/704 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p><em>The Neoliberal Diet: Unhealthy Profits, Unhealthy People</em> analyzes how global diets have changed in recent decades, what caused these changes, and who loses and gains by the transformation. Author Gerardo Otero is a professor of international studies at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, Canada, and the author of several previous books on the global food system. In the book, Otero describes how the global diet that emerged at the turn of the 21<sup>st</sup>&nbsp;century has contributed to world­wide increases in overweight and obesity and how neoliberalism, the variant of capitalism that evolved in this period, promotes obesogenic diets.</p> <p>Neoliberalism posits that markets are best equipped to solve all problems and that by deregulating, privatizing, and emphasizing individual responsibility, governments can unleash capitalist economies for growth (Harvey, 2007). Harvey describes neoliberalism as the corporate capitalist class’s political response to the threats to their control that emerged in the late 1960s and 1970s. . . .</p> Nicholas Freudenberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-09 2019-07-09 9 1 1 2 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.013 Why Place-Based Food Systems? Food Security in a Chaotic World https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/702 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Techno-industrial society is founded on a ‘socially constructed’ myth of perpetual economic growth propelled by the cult of efficiency, expanding trade, and continuous technological progress. But this neoliberal vision has resulted in an increasingly unsustainable entanglement of nations in a world compromised by ecological overshoot. Today, many countries are dependent on others for critical resources, including food, even as population growth and increased consumption deplete and pollute the ecosystems essential for human survival. Climate change and energy uncertainty further threaten trade-dependent populations. Indeed, societal collapse is a growing possibility. The future food security of cities—or any size of human settlement—lies in greater regional self-reliance, particularly through the protection of arable land and the re-localization of both primary agriculture and food processing. . . .</p> William E. Rees ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-26 2019-06-26 9 1 1 9 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.014 The Farmers Market Metrics Project: A Research Brief on Scalable Data Collection in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metro https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/701 <p>Maintaining funding for local and regional food system initiatives requires reliable data to demon­strate their impacts. Data that are specific to farm­ers markets in a localized context are not readily available. The Farmers Market Metrics Project is a three-way partnership between farmers markets, local government, and a university to elevate the capacity of the markets in the Minneapolis–St. Paul Metro region through regionally collected metrics to quantify their presence in the regional food system. In this research brief, we introduce the FM360 data collection method being developed by the project, which is scalable across geographic areas. Scalability is critical to making the data collection process adaptable and effective in cases involving multiple data sources and when flexibility is needed in defining the food system parameters to satisfy partners and prospective funders.</p> Hikaru Hanawa Peterson Joseph J. Nowak ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-16 2019-06-16 9 1 1 6 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.011 Wilde’s Textbook Covers the Fundamentals of Food System Policy https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/700 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>Many of us who are interested in food systems reach a point in our learning journey where we realize that our government is involved in nearly every aspect of the food system. Whether you are passionate about nutrition, food justice, or climate change, you can bet there is at least one government regulation or program that signifi­cantly affects that issue. Parke Wilde’s second edition of <em>Food Policy in the United States: An Intro­duction</em> is a comprehensive guide perfect for the graduate or undergraduate student who needs to understand the policy-making world. The book is not too different from the first edition, aside from updates based on recent policy changes in sources like the 2014 farm bill and the <em>Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020.</em></p> <p>The textbook does its best to cover every major food policy topic from “farm to fork.” Before he begins, Wilde uses Chapter 1 to give the reader a crash course in the legislative process and some basic economic terminology, like “external­ities.” He also takes the time to explain that this textbook is written from a public-interest perspec­tive and that the book tackles questions about both how policies <em>should </em>be made and how policies are <em>actually </em>made.</p> Michael Zastoupil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-10 2019-06-10 9 1 1 2 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.007 From Aristotle to the Coalition of Immokalee Workers: Ethical Competence via Narrative Ethics Grows Food Justice https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/698 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>When conservationist Aldo Leopold wrote in the late 1940s about how one of the “penal­ties of an ecological education” includes “living alone in a world of wounds” (Leopold, Schwartz, &amp; Leopold, 1968, p. 197), he could have very well been foreseeing the challenges confronting food systems advocates and food justice activists today.</p> <p>Such advocates and activists become students of a probing moral education as they cultivate the targets of food justice in order to resolve myriad food injustices. State University of New York (SUNY) College at Plattsburgh philosophy professor Beth Dixon has written for years about how moral philosophy can greatly inform food justice theories and practices alike, including in her 2015 JAFSCD article, “Rewriting the Call to Charity: From Food Shelf Volunteer to Food Justice Advo­cate” (Dixon, 2015). Dixon’s latest work, <em>Food Justice and Narrative Ethics: Reading Stories for Ethical Awareness and Activism</em>, guides the ethical novice (i.e., practically every food systems worker, food systems advocate, and food justice activist) on “learning to see what is unjust in a particular situation” via documentary films, ethnographies, and other food justice narrative-driven media. In turn, Dixon informs us about how we can “accurately identify what policies, laws, and structural conditions should change in order to discharge our responsibility for achieving social justice” (p. 3). . . .</p> Matthew J. Young ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-06 2019-06-06 9 1 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.006 Connecting New Farmers to Place, Agroecology, and Community through a Bilingual Organic Farm Incubator https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/699 <p>Renewed public interest in the localized dimensions of food and farming systems offers opportunities for citizens to become more engaged in decision making about how their food is produced, distributed, and consumed, and, for all these actions, by whom. This paper explores an initiative designed to reinvigorate the production components of a place-based, regional food system through connecting diverse aspiring entrepreneurial farmers, nonprofit organizations, land grant university faculty, and food consumers around shared values. The characteristics that distinguish values-based food systems can be sets of values associated with environmentally sustainable production practices, the qualities of the food, the distribution of the food, and/or relationships with particular farmers and places (Ostrom, DeMaster, Noe, &amp; Schermer, 2017). Based on interviews and participant observation, our participatory research with the Viva Farms bilingual farm incubator program explores the role of place, social, and environmental values, and social learning in launching an incoming generation of women, immigrant, and low-income farmers. These themes have not been previously explored in the literature in relation to the success of new entry farmer initiatives. As of 2016, six years into the program, our findings show that 77 percent of past program participants were still farming in the same region, using agroecological farming practices and employing place-based marketing strategies.</p> Katherine Selting Smith Marcia Ostrom Donald McMoran Lynne Carpenter-Boggs ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-06 2019-06-06 9 1 1 14 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.030 Communing with Bees: A Whole-of-Community Approach to Address Crisis in the Anthropocene https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/697 <p>We are currently facing myriad socio-ecological crises, from global climate change to resource depletion to the loss of dozens of species every day. Despite a longstanding and impassioned environmental movement, these problems persist and are worsening. The extent and degree of human-induced change on the planet is significant enough to have placed us in a new geological age: the Anthropocene. Three perspectives are engaged as a way to understand this new era and address our fractured human-nature relationship: (1) polit­ical ecology, (2)&nbsp;the ecological humanities, and (3) the informal economy. An exploration of inter­secting themes leads to the start of a new theo­retical contribution, which manifests at the convergence of theories: a “whole-of-community” approach. This whole-of-community approach is one that is concerned with both inter-human and interspecies relationships to move us towards communities that are place-based, integrated, participatory, and grounded in eco-social justice and equity. Pollinating bees are used as an illus­trative example of how to achieve this vision. Bees can be both a bridge and gateway. As a bridge, they can provide a way of (re)connecting human and nonhuman nature and as a gateway, they can guide humans to a deeper understanding and connection with urban natures. Reconciling humans with the rest of the biotic community through place-based initiatives is possible by fundamentally and radically expanding our current framing of the concept of community.</p> Jennifer Marshman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-16 2019-05-16 9 1 1 24 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.029 THE ECONOMIC PAMPHLETEER: A "Green New Deal" for Farm and Food Policy https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/696 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>I made the case for a “new mandate for farm and food policy” in a 2015 <em>Economic Pamphleteer</em> column—concluding that “Food sovereignty is the logical public policy mandate to support agricul­tural sustainability and a sustainable future for humanity” (Ikerd, 2015, p. 13). The Green New Deal, a 2019 congressional resolution, now pro­vides a logical framework for a policy mandate to secure food sovereignty (116<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;Congress, 2019).</p> <p>The Green New Deal obviously will confront vigorous opposition. Already, claims have been made that it would decimate animal agriculture in order to mitigate climate change. It has also been widely characterized as socialism and a threat to democracy. Support and opposition likely will be divided along political party lines. They shouldn’t be. The core values reflected in Green New Deal and in food sovereignty are Democratic, Repub­lican, and America values. . . .</p> John Ikerd ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-14 2019-05-14 9 1 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.008 Devastation and Celebration: Digging into Culinary Roots, Race, and Place https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/695 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>If you don’t already follow Michael Twitty (@koshersoul on Twitter), you are missing out on reflections and extended commentary on his powerful and acclaimed book, <em>The Cooking Gene: A Journey Through African American Culinary History in the Old South</em>. On October 11, 2018, the author tweeted, “The Cooking Gene is a culinary Roots. I wanted other families in African America and the African Atlantic to see ways they could do similar work. I wanted to introduce my country to [its] Black Southern culinary heritage and West Africans to their cousins.” He clarifies, “My book is NOT a cookbook. It is a food memoir plus culinary history plus genealogical detective story with recipes. . . . 21 or so.”</p> <p>This concise meta-analysis allows details and treasures of the 425 pages of text, including a new afterword, to fall into sharper relief. Of his winding and comprehensive book, Twitty writes in the author’s note<em>, </em>“If it were possible to give a linear, orderly, soup to nuts version of my story or any of my family’s without resorting to genre gymnastics, I would have considered it. Instead, I am pleased with the journey as it has revealed itself to me” (p.&nbsp;427). . . .</p> Yona Sipos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-14 2019-05-14 9 1 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.003