Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD),</strong> ISSN 2152-0801, is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an open access, online-only journal; all readers may download, share, or print any articles as long as proper attribution is given, in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems, a project of the Center for Transformative Action en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> Operation Community Impact responds to food insecurity and challenges faced by dairy producers <p>For many individuals and families, challenges sur­rounding food insecurity increased when the pan­demic arrived. COVID-19 also created a surplus of fluid milk and led to decreased prices for farmers. Dairy farms nationwide were dumping milk due to decreased demand and lack of storage space at plants. Meanwhile, food pantries were in desperate need of more food to help provide nourishment for the increasing number of individuals facing food insecurity. The Cooperative Extension 4-H and Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) programs at the University of Connecticut partnered with dairy processors to secure donations and mobilize Extension volun­teers to distribute the donations to food pantries statewide.</p> Stacey Stearns William Davenport Jennifer Cushman Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 10 1 1–4 1–4 10.5304/jafscd.2020.101.034 The promise of sustainability for Iowa <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>I was first attracted to graduate school in sociol­ogy in part to help me understand the nagging question of why some people work hard and yet remain poor. When extrapolated to the community level, I was puzzled by why some communities seem to grow and thrive and yet others decline and stagnate. I wish this book had been available during my graduate training.&nbsp;</p> <p>Two essential dimensions of community eco­nomic development are the natural resource base of the community and the qualities of the work­force, what is often referred to as the human capi­tal of local residents. Jeopardizing either the re­source base or failing to invest in people generally diminishes the opportunities for economic devel­opment. Likewise, spoil the environment and it becomes less attractive to live in and those who can migrate elsewhere. Failing to invest in educa­tion and skill training often results in a marginal­ized population that cannot fully engage in the growth and development of the community. . . .</p> Paul Lasley Copyright (c) 2020 The Author 2020-11-17 2020-11-17 10 1 1–3 1–3 10.5304/jafscd.2020.101.020 Incorporating local foods into low-income families’ home-cooking practices <p>Alternative food practices, including farmers markets and CSAs, are often inaccessible to low-income families. Subsidized CSAs and fruit and vegetable prescription programs have the potential to decrease food insecurity, increase fresh fruit and vegetable consumption, and generate better health outcomes. However, several challenges can limit the success of such programs, including the logis­tics of distribution and an inability to cook from scratch due to a lack of kitchen infrastructure, time, or skills. In this paper, we investigate two diet-related health programs conducted with commu­nity partners in Madison, Wisconsin, and Portland, Oregon. We used photovoice to evaluate and enhance these programs, which supplied low-income participants with free or subsidized weekly shares of local food, addressed transportation bar­riers associated with access, and offered recipes and cooking education. Drawing on social practice theory, we demonstrate how these programs altered food provisioning practices for low-income individuals and families by building their compe­tence in the kitchen, fostering meaningful social relationships, and cultivating new meanings related to fresh, local food. The short-term gains were positive, and such community-based nutrition pro­grams warrant continued support as part of a broader strategy to address poverty and food insecurity.</p> Jennifer Gaddis Amy Coplen Molly Clark-Barol Allea Martin Claire Barrett Lauren Lubowicki Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-11-17 2020-11-17 10 1 1–16 1–16 10.5304/jafscd.2020.101.019 An initiative to develop 21st century regional food systems <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>The design and development of a rejuvenated and re-created regional food system for the USA are necessary now. COVID-19 has effectively unmasked the fragility of the global industrial food system. The ensuing crisis has provided us with a rare opportunity to pause, reflect, and imagine a more resilient and sustainable food system—one that is more balanced and just, one that is capable of with­standing shocks and disruptions, and one that better provides for people’s health and community economic security as well as the planet’s well-being.</p> <p>A nationwide network of regional food systems is not only possible; its development needs to be stimulated and accelerated, as inspired by the 2010 report “The 25% Shift” (Masi, Schaller, &amp; Shuman, 2010). This report analyzed the 16-county Northeast Ohio region around Cleveland and the impact of meeting a quarter (25%) of all demand for its food from the region itself. . . .</p> Larry Yee Jamie Harvie Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-11-17 2020-11-17 10 1 1–3 1–3 10.5304/jafscd.2020.101.009 Framing the fight: Food, history, and meaning in the mess <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Issues of food systems can be cast in a glaring light that obscures nuance and polarizes dia­logue. We get closer to the truth when we pull back from our present constructions of the issues and allow ourselves to experience the dynamic, marvelously complicated stories of how they have formed, what forces drove them, and how those forces affect us still. Such histories entail tension and convergence, missed opportunities, best-laid plans, and unintended consequences. The under­standable impulse may be to avoid dif­ficult and even painful realizations of how entan­gled food has become with larger issues of class, identity, and political economy. The authors of <em>Food Fights</em> do not let us off the hook. They invite us instead to walk back through these issues more deeply, more critically, using a historical frame that allows us to see the issues, if not more clearly, at least more honestly. . . .</p> Jess Gerrior Copyright (c) 2020 The Author 2020-11-13 2020-11-13 10 1 1–3 1–3 10.5304/jafscd.2020.101.022 ICT solutions to support local food supply chains during the COVID-19 pandemic <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted food supply chains operations across the globe. Due to health safety practices like social distancing, local food supply chains such as farmers markets and food hubs are unable to conduct normal operations. This paper describes two low-cost information and communica­tion technology (ICT) solutions developed for a farmers market and a food hub in Iowa to enable them to continue their operations during the pandemic while ensuring the safety of vulnerable consumers and essential workers. Other benefits of ICT for the long-term sustainability of local food systems are also discussed.</p> Anuj Mittal Jason Grimm Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 10 1 1–5 1–5 10.5304/jafscd.2020.101.015 Oregon Farmers' Perspectives on Motivations and Obstacles to Transition to Certified Organic <p>This exploratory study investigates perceptions of the transition to certified organic production among farmers in the U.S. state of Oregon who were actively transitioning all or part of their operation to certified organic production. It examines the influence of farmer experience with organic farming systems on motivations and obstacles to transition to certified organic farming. The analysis creates and compares three categories of farmers based on their total years of farming experience and years of farming using organic methods—<em>Experienced Organic Farmers, Beginning Organic Farmers,</em> and <em>Experienced Farmers Beginning Organic</em>—and provides insights into the economic and ideological motivations for transitioning to certified organic, as well as the economic, production, and marketing obstacles inherent to certified organic transition.</p> Deanna Lloyd Garry Stephenson Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 10 1 1–15 1–15 10.5304/jafscd.2020.101.017 Iteration, innovation, and collaboration <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>The value proposition of farmers markets has been altered by the COVID-19 pandemic. The festival-like features of markets put on hold, the in-person social interactions reduced, the physical flow of walk-up markets changed. Just as previous crises<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a> called upon markets to shift their operations to serve their community, the 2020 story highlights how once again, these low-capacity/high-functioning entities have been forced to reinvent themselves. This time, alternative models involving online pre-orders, drive-thru, and curbside product pick-up scenarios have been rapidly put in place by individual vendors and market operators. Open-air and shed market vendor placements have been redesigned to allow for social distancing among both vendors and customers. Sanitation and public safety measures including gloves, hand sanitizer, and hand-washing facilities are now essential considerations.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> <a href=";">;</a></p> Diana Broadaway Darlene Wolnik Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 10 1 1–4 1–4 10.5304/jafscd.2020.101.014 A gap analysis of farm tourism microentrepreneurial mentoring needs in North Carolina, USA <p>Tourism is frequently proposed as a strategy to revitalize rural economies. The current mushroom­ing of web platforms for the tourism sharing eco­nomy affords rural microentrepreneurs opportu­nities to capitalize on the growing demand for authentic experiences. However, these platforms may actually be widening the socio-economic gap between individuals across the digital and urban/ rural divides. In addition, the well-established urban culture of entrepreneurial mentorship is not taking hold in the rural areas, which direly need to attract and support nascent entrepreneurs. Farms are increasingly adopting tourism to diversify their business models, and Extension agents are trusted mentors par excellence of agribusiness entrepreneurs; therefore, this study explores the extent to which Extension agents feel able to address the mentoring needs of farm tourism microentrepre­neurs. We measured both tourism e-microentrepre­neurial self-efficacy (TeMSE) among farmers and tourism e-microentrepreneurial mentoring self-efficacy (TeMMSE) of Extension agents. Results show that farmers have relatively low self-efficacy in the dimensions of e-marketing and marshalling resources, and that agents may be efficacious men­tors in these dimensions. Farmers also show low self-efficacy in adapting to externalities; however, agents do not perceive themselves as efficacious mentors in this dimension. We conclude with a discussion of practical implications for train-the-trainer strategies to enable farm tourism micro­entrepreneurship success.</p> Bruno Ferreira Duarte Morais Adriana Szabo Becky Bowen Susan Jakes Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 10 1 1–17 1–17 10.5304/jafscd.2020.101.025 COVID-19 responses: Food policy councils are “stepping in, stepping up, and stepping back" <p>In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, food policy councils (FPCs) have emerged as a critical struc­ture for organizing community-based responses to multiple food system issues. Strong relationships with various food system stakeholders have proven essential in inspiring coordinated action. Using the early results of a Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future survey of FPCs (2020), we discuss some of the accomplishments and contributions that 118 FPCs have made toward addressing hunger and supporting producers, school food, food chain workers, racial equity, and resilience in the United States and in tribal nations.</p> Anne Palmer Abiodun Atoloye Karen Bassarab Larissa Calancie Raychel Santo Kristen Cooksey Stowers Copyright (c) 2020 The Authors 2020-11-02 2020-11-02 10 1 1–4 1–4 10.5304/jafscd.2020.101.013