Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD),</strong> ISSN 2152-0801, is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an open access, online-only journal; all readers may download, share, or print any articles as long as proper attribution is given, in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems, a project of the Center for Transformative Action en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> Enhancing Food Sovereignty <p>A long history of tribal disenfranchisement through government policies has contributed to a lack of trust and participation by tribal communi­ties in nontribal organizations and initiatives. This article will discuss the process through which new partnerships were forged using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach among university researchers, local nontribal organiza­tions, and three Tribes in the Klamath River Basin of southern Oregon and northern California through a five-year federal food security grant. The partnership’s shared goal was to enhance tribal health and food security and food sovereignty in the Klamath River Basin by building a healthy, sus­tainable, and culturally relevant food system. We describe the context that gave rise to this collabo­rative partnership; share reflections on how project goals, objectives, and activities were co-created, adapted, and implemented; and highlight specific examples of research, education, and extension activities, informed by CBPR, that support the tribal goals of strengthening Indigenous food sovereignty. We also share lessons learned from navigating unforeseen challenges in ways that we hope can provide insight for scholars, cooperative extension advisors, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies seeking to build effective partnerships with tribes working toward food system change in Native American communities.</p> Jennifer Sowerwine Daniel Sarna-Wojcicki Megan Mucioki Lisa Hillman Frank Lake Edith Friedman Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 9 B 1 24 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.013 Restorying Northern Arapaho Food Sovereignty <p>Communities in Indian Country across the U.S. are reconnecting to traditional and healthier food sys­tems, often working explicitly for food sovereignty. This paper contributes to these reconnection efforts by (re)telling the story of the Northern Arapaho food system and the path we are creating toward health and our reclamation of Northern Arapaho food sovereignty. With support from my co-author, I approached data gathering and analysis in a blend of traditional native and conventional western research ways. I use the phrase “foreign intrusion” to help re-name eras in our history when our food system was altered by colonialism, forms of physical and cultural genocide, and assimilation. This “restorying” of the food system history of the Northern Arapaho people provides an indigenized frame for understanding our food system history, impacts of intrusion, and paths for reclaiming Indigenous food sovereignty. My methods include interviews with tribal members (<em>N</em>=16), three talking circles (<em>N</em>=14, 11, and 6), autoethnography, seven years of participation and observation in food sovereignty work, and document analysis, in addition to extensive literature reviews.</p> Melvin Arthur Christine Porter Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-11-11 2019-11-11 9 B 1 16 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.012 Place-Based Food Systems: Making the Case, Making it Happen <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>In less than a century, our food system has been transformed into a complex network of global-industrial supply chains, increasingly disconnecting us from the people and processes that provide our food. Such a ‘market-driven’ system externalizes many of its social, environmental, and economic costs. At the same time, it concentrates power and profits among a few stakeholders who maintain hegemonic control of the food systems, yet are often far removed from its negative impacts. The list of transgressions is long and familiar to us: extensive environmental degradation, unjust labor conditions for food workers, the collapse of farming communities, epidemic occurrence of western diet–related disease, biodiversity loss, and on it goes. It is a system that produces more food than at any period in history—more than enough to feed the global population (Holt-Giménez, Shattuck, Altieri, Herren, &amp; Gliessman, 2012, Food and Agriculture Organ­ization of the United Nations [FAO], 2017)—yet leaves more than one in 10 people experiencing hunger (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO], International Fund for Agricul­ture Devel­opment [IFAD], UNICEF, World Food Programme [WFP], &amp; World Health Organization [WHO], 2019).</p> Kent Mullinix Naomi Robert Rebecca Harbut Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-10-31 2019-10-31 9 B 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09A.002 hishuk’ish tsawalk—Everything is One <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>My&nbsp;name is Charlotte. My traditional name is <em>thlutismayulth, </em>Carrying Thunder, from our whaling heritage. I’m going to talk a little about who I am and where I am from. I am from the Tseshaht Nation, one the 14 groups that make up the larger Nuu-chah-nulth Nation on the west coast of Vancouver Island.</p> <p>Before I begin, I want to pay respect to the First Peoples of this land, the Coast Salish peoples. Every time we enter these territories—unceded, recognized traditional territories—we need to acknowledge not just the people, the elders, and the leaders, but also the ancestors whose spirits still walk in these spaces. So, I acknowledge that before I begin.</p> <p>The material in this talk comes from a book I have been working on for quite a few years since I published my last book.</p> <p>So, who we are. The Nuu-chah-nulth are on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The traditional territory of the 14 nations also includes the western tip of western Washington, because the Makah in western Washington are our relatives (Figure 1). It was the border that separated us, but we are recog­nized as relatives and share the same language, the same traditions, and the same whaling heritage. . . .</p> Charlotte Coté Copyright (c) 2019 The Author 2019-10-31 2019-10-31 9 B 37 48 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09A.003 Good Words, Good Food, Good Mind <p>Each year, more interdisciplinary food-related pro­grams are offered at Turtle Island colleges and uni­versities. First Nations Technical Institute (FNTI), an Indigenous postsecondary institution located on Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory, Ontario, is in the process of developing an Indigenous food systems undergraduate degree program. This article shares our thoughts regarding education for food system transformation at FNTI. Transformative learning theory (Mezirow, 2000) presents a framework for adult learning with the potential to effect food sys­tem change. Our paper examines this theory con­sidering traditional Haudenosaunee teachings and contemporary thought. Despite the potential for food system transformation, transformative learn­ing theory—grounded in Western thought—can not lead to a truly decolonized food system because it offers the Indigenous learner little to rebuild that which was deconstructed. Although transformative learning theory and Haudenosaunee ways of knowing are incompatible, transformative learning could help Indigenous learners to chal­lenge implicit colonial narratives as part of the pro­cess of decolonization. Transformative learning theory may also have value for cultivating allies in non-Indigenous contexts. We are designing our Indigenous food systems program according to traditional Haudenosaunee principles such as ka’nikonhri:io (good mind), and we will employ talking circles, common to many Indigenous nations. We suggest that a food system pedagogy, based on traditional teachings and principles from specific Indigenous nations, is the only authentic route to a decolonized and equitable food system.</p> <p>See the <strong><a title="Article press release" href=";f=60033&amp;s=84565&amp;m=985077&amp;t=257c360ddc23fcec50d37942ed548ee4169a6c0d76d51e227fa886af9ecdf0c7" target="_blank" rel="noopener">press release</a></strong> for this article.</p> Keith Williams Suzanne Brant Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-10-21 2019-10-21 9 B 1 14 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.010 A Holistic Definition of Healthy Traditional Harvest Practices for Rural Indigenous Communities in Interior Alaska <p>Traditional harvest practices of the harvesting and sharing of fish, wildlife, and other wild resources are an integral source of food security that support physical, mental, and spiritual wellness, education, socio-economic development, and cultural identity of Indigenous communities in Interior Alaska. Many significant changes, including climate change, are impacting this way of life and challenging secure access to foods vital for sustenance and cultural preservation. We use a case study approach to develop a holistic and place-based definition of traditional harvest practices of Indigenous commu­nities in rural Interior Alaska that expands upon commonly accepted definitions of food security. This definition emphasizes the role of ecological health, culture, and decision-making power in strengthening food security and sovereignty. We also highlight how multistakeholer partnerships foster capacity building that can support commu­nities in their efforts to advocate for food security and sovereignty.</p> Krista Heeringa Orville Huntington Brooke Woods F. Stuart Chapin Richard Hum Todd Brinkman Workshop Participants Copyright (c) 2019 Krista Heeringa, Orville Huntington, Brooke Woods, F. Stuart Chapin, Richard Hum, Todd Brinkman, Workshop Participants 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 B 1 15 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.009 The Indigenous Food Circle: Reconciliation and Resurgence through Food in Northwestern Ontario <p>Food policy councils provide a forum to address food systems issues and a platform for coordinated action among multisectoral stakeholders. While diverse in structure, most councils aim to develop democratic and inclusive processes to evaluate, influence, and establish integrated policy and programs for healthy, equitable, and sustainable food systems. The Thunder Bay and Area Food Strategy (TBAFS) is one such example that pro­motes regional food self-reliance, healthy environ­ments, and thriving economies through the implementa­tion of research, planning, policy, and program development. Despite its success, the TBAFS had no formal engagement from the Indigenous com­munities that make up almost 13% of Thunder Bay’s population (the highest urban Indigenous population in Canada). Recognizing this gap, in 2016, members of the TBAFS began to develop partnerships with regional Indigenous leaders and organizations to better understand the barriers and opportunities to engagement. The result was the establishment of the Indigenous Food Circle, which aimed to reduce Indigenous food insecurity, increase food self-determination, and establish meaningful relationships with the settler population through food. In this paper, we trace the history of the Indigenous Food Circle. Drawing on theories of decolonization and Indige­nous food sover­eignty, we argue that the Indige­nous Food Circle requires more than simply good­will from TBAFS members and other allied organizations. It demands confronting our histories and engaging in action that transforms current pat­terns of relations. It means embracing the discom­fort that comes with recognizing the prevalence of settler colonial­ism and developing respectful and just relation­ships followed by action. We conclude with some suggestions for continuing this work and the opportunity to experiment with food as a tool for reconciliation and resurgence.</p> Charles Levkoe Lana Ray Jessica Mclaughlin Copyright (c) 2019 Charles Levkoe, Lana Ray, Jessica Mclaughlin 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 B 1 14 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.008 Our Hands at Work: Indigenous Food Sovereignty in Western Canada <p>Food sovereignty has recently emerged as a means of addressing pervasive food-related problems in many Indigenous communities in Canada as well as around the world. This is particularly important for Indigenous people who still face threats to their food systems directly stemming from colonialism. Stories of community-based Indigenous food sov­ereignty are presented in this paper. Outcomes are summarized using a circle metaphor that describes four key elements of Indigenous food sovereignty that emerged from this research: history, connec­tion to the land, relationships, and identity. Indige­nous food sovereignty requires that we move beyond access to food, and critically interrogate Indigenous relationships to food. This is founded upon the notion that people should be able to be self-determinant in their own food and cultural traditions. Progress requires a shift in how Indige­nous food relationships are understood and incor­porating Indigenous worldviews and perspec­tives as part of a larger resurgence movement.</p> Tabitha Robin Copyright (c) 2019 Tabitha Robin 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 B 1 15 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.007 Growing Intergenerational Resilience for Indigenous Food Sovereignty through Home Gardening <p>As a community-based participatory research pro­ject designed to promote health and wellbeing, Growing Resilience supports home gardens for 96 primarily Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho families in the Wind River Reservation, located in Wyoming. Through analysis of data from two years of qualitative fieldwork, including stories told by 53 gardeners and members of the project’s commu­nity advisory board in talking circles and through our novel <em>sovereign storytelling </em>method, we investigated if and how these participants employ rela­tionships, knowledge, and practices across gen­era­tions through home gardening. We find that partic­ipants describe home gardening within pre­sent, past, future, and cross-generational frames, rooted in family relationships and knowledge shared across generations. Our analysis of these themes suggests that gardening provides families a means to transmit resilience across generations or, as we call it here, <em>intergenerational resilience</em>. We con­clude by discussing intergenerational resilience as a culturally specific mechanism of social-ecological community resilience that may be particularly rele­vant in Indigenous movements for food sover­eignty.</p> Rachael Budowle Melvin Arthur Christine Porter Copyright (c) 2019 Rachael Budowle, Melvin Arthur, Christine Porter 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 B 1 21 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.018 Decolonizing the Caribbean Diet <p>We wonder if food and agriculture will be an emer­gent theme in reclaiming the Taíno identity, the Indigenous people of the Caribbean. As we con­sider the emergent movement to decolonize our diets and <em>utilize food as medicine</em> alongside veganism and vegetarianism trends, we wonder<em> how</em> and <em>if</em> food, foodways, and agriculture are or will be tools to decolonize and reclaim the Taíno identity. In this paper, we will explore two perspectives on the possible opportunities and challenges of such movements and how they will look in the Caribbean and its diaspora.</p> Vanessa García Polanco Luis Rodríguez-Cruz Copyright (c) 2019 Vanessa García Polanco, Luis Rodríguez-Cruz 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 B 1 6 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09B.004