Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD) </strong>is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an online-only journal; subscribers may download or print any articles in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems, a project of the Center for Transformative Action en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> IN THIS ISSUE: Gleanings from the Field https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/591 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Food waste and food rescue have been hot topics in recent years (although gleaning dates back to at least biblical times in the ancient traditions of <em>tzedakah</em> and <em>pe’ah</em>). Our cover photo for this issue, courtesy of Salvation Farms, shows a group of volunteers joining Salvation Farms and two other Vermont Gleaning Collective organizations gleaning a crop of carrots too large and misshapen for market. I first learned of the great work Salvation Farms is doing a couple of years ago from the Food Feed blog (<a href="https://learn.uvm.edu/%0bfoodsystemsblog/">https://learn.uvm.edu/foodsystemsblog/</a>) of the University of Vermont (a founding partner of JAFSCD). Salvation Farms had just published a report assessing on-farm food loss in Vermont, and I thought its methodology should be peer-reviewed and in the applied research literature. I contacted report authors Elana Dean and Salvation Farms director Theresa Snow and suggested they find a scholar who could work with them on a manuscript. They found Roni Neff, a food-waste expert at the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future (coincidentally also a founding partner of JAFSCD). Their collaboration has yielded a seminal work on estimating on-farm food loss. I share this story as a model of food system researchers and professionals collaborating to produce applied research that benefits all parties concerned—and the greater community. We are likely to do a special issue on food waste in the near future, and we hope to see more researcher-professional collaborations like this one....</p> Duncan Hilchey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-07-06 2018-07-06 8 2 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.017 Urban Farmers Markets as a Strategy to Increase Access to and Consumption of Fresh Vegetables among SNAP and Non-SNAP Participants https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/592 <p>Inadequate access to healthy foods is an important determinant of dietary intake among low-income populations in the United States. This study reports the results of an evaluation of two urban farmers markets in metro Atlanta, which received funding to implement Electronic Benefits Transfer card readers to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits as a form of payment. &nbsp;In Spring 2013, 179 farmers market customers completed self-administered paper surveys to assess the extent to which they received SNAP benefits, their patterns of using the market, and their self-reported changes in access to and consumption of fresh vegetables as a result of the markets. Results indicate that 28% of surveyed customers received SNAP benefits; however, only 20% of SNAP recipients reported that they were from the immediately surrounding community (1&nbsp;mile away or less). Among returning customers, 74.2% strongly agreed that the markets made it easier to purchase fresh vegetables, and 64.5% reported eating more fresh vegetables as a result of the markets. Results suggest that market customers perceive that the farmers markets increase their access to and consumption of fresh vegetables, particularly among SNAP recipients. However, greater outreach is needed to members of the immediately surrounding community, many of whom receive SNAP and may benefit from increased access to the produce sold at the farmers markets.</p> Rebecca C. Woodruff Kimberly J. Arriola Kia Powell-Threets K. Rashid Nuri Carol Hunter Michelle C. Kegler ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-07-06 2018-07-06 8 2 93 105 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.013 Six Critical Solutions to Fix Peoria’s Community Emergency Food Assistance System https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/590 <p><em>First paragraph: </em></p> <p>No food system can be considered successful unless all people are well fed with the best food available.</p> <p>—Ken Meter (2013, p. 11)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>For me, Ken Meter’s simple statement hits the nail on the proverbial head. In Peoria, Illinois, we see fundamental issues facing many of our community food programs as they attempt to overcome the challenge of providing people in need with good food—food that is healthy, green, fair, and affordable. Not only are we challenged in feeding all of our food-insecure families adequately; we really struggle in offering, on a consistent basis, healthier food options.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the city of Peoria (population just over 114,000), where I co-founded the Gifts in the Moment Foundation (the gitm Foundation), there are over 40 soup kitchens and food pantries that directly serve families as part of the emergency food assistance system. Collectively called community food programs (CFPs), most are part of faith-based organizations, and many exist within mere blocks of one another. Yet in Peoria there exists no mutually shared system for clients to know whether they qualify for participation, where all of these CFPs are located, or even their hours of operation. Most of these well-intentioned emergency food programs admit to poor communication, but are burdened by having volunteer staff and few resources to try to fix our dysfunctional system. In this Voices from the Grassroots brief, I elaborate on these challenges and offer six solutions critical to fixing Peoria’s emergency food assistance system. My hope is that this brief will inspire action within our Regional Fresh Food Council (<a title="Regional Fresh Food Council" href="https://www.regionalfreshfoodcouncil.org" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://www.regionalfreshfoodcouncil.org</a>), and may possibly inform the work of other food policy councils dealing with similar challenges. We welcome input from other organizations and agencies.</p> Kim A. Keenan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 8 2 19 22 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.014 Categorizing Practical Training Programs for New Farmers https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/589 <p>Despite limited study, farmer training is an area of growing interest and concern among new and experienced farmers across North America. It is also an area with broad implications regarding the future of domestic food production. This paper presents findings from a community-campus partnership research study that aimed to explore, document, and categorize existing and emergent models of practical farmer training in North America. We begin by describing the context of practical farming and the need for training programs, followed by a discussion of our findings organized into five analytical categories along with discussion of their implications: (1) Informal farm internship associations; (2) centralized internship programs; (3) private or nonprofit course-based programs; (4) formal academic programs; and (5) independent and self-directed learning. We conclude with some implications from this study and suggest areas for future research. It is our hope that the categories presented here will provide a springboard to support the future research and development of new practical farmer training programs.</p> Laura Schreiner Charles Z. Levkoe Theresa Schumilas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-28 2018-06-28 8 2 9 17 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.012 Baselines, Trajectories, and Scenarios https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/588 <p>Agricultural production on farms and ranches in the U.S. contributes to the food supply and the food system on local, regional, national, and global scales. Increasing production at the regional scale—the focus of this research—depends on accurately estimating current production and understanding the mechanisms and resource requirements of production shifts. The Produc­tion Team of the EFSNE Project undertook seven studies that focused on current and poten­tial production in the U.S. Northeast region, which includes nearly one-quarter of the popula­tion but only about 3% of national cropland. Here we summarize the results from these studies that: (1) estimate the regional self-reliance of primary crop, livestock products, and livestock feeds; (2) develop and implement a method to delineate urban, peri-urban, and rural zones around cities and analyze the distribution of food chain businesses across these zones; (3) assess crop yield trajectories to refine potential production increases associated with agricultural expansion into different land categories; and (4) model climate change and dietary impacts on yields and land use. The regional self-reliance of food crops varies widely, and the predominant agricultural use of land is for the production of animal feeds. The peri-urban zones contain significant agricultural production and concentrations of supply chain businesses. The potential to expand regional output via yield increases varies by crop and by land category and is strongly influenced by climate change. The diverse disciplines represented on the Production Team, along with significant leader­ship from graduate students and post-doctoral researchers, contributed to the broad array of studies completed.</p> Timothy Griffin Christian Peters David Fleisher Michael Conard Zach Conrad Nicole Tichenor Ashley McCarthy Emily Piltch Jonathan Resop Houman Saberi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-28 2018-06-28 8 2 23 37 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.015 Food Systems Leadership https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/587 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p><em>Food Leadership: Leadership and Adult Learning for Global Food Systems</em>, edited by Catherine Etmanski (2017), consists of eight papers in three sections: Indigenous food systems, leadership in global food system transformation, and learning in global food system transformation. Leadership, although a contested concept (Grint, 2005), has been broadly defined by Bass and Bass (2008) as “the ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute to the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members” (p. 23). Global food insecurity remains a persistent problem despite decades of intervention and billions of dollars of investment (Barrett, 2010; Rosegrant, Paisner, Meijer, &amp; Witcover, 2001); yet, very little research has focused on leadership for food system transformation (Etmanski, 2017). This volume presents a long overdue treatment of an important yet neglected subject....</p> Keith Williams ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-26 2018-06-26 8 2 165 169 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.016 Soil Contaminant Concentrations at Urban Agricultural Sites in New Orleans, Louisiana https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/586 <p>Along with the many benefits of urban agriculture comes the possible exposure to contaminants not typically seen in rural soils. Through the use of standard laboratory analyses (ICP-AES and CVAAS) and a field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) calibrated for soil analysis, this study quantified contamination levels at urban agricultural sites throughout New Orleans, Louisiana. The results of the standard laboratory analyses were compared to the results from the XRF. &nbsp;We collected soil samples at 27 urban and suburban farm and garden sites from the Greater New Orleans area. We analyzed the soil samples for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, mercury, lead, nickel, and zinc using the XRF and standard methods. Most sites had median con­centrations significantly below Louisiana’s soil standards. Paired soil samples showed XRF results were significantly higher than laboratory results for all metals but copper. Only lead (ρ=0.82, <em>p</em>&lt;0.0001) and zinc (ρ=0.78, <em>p</em>=0.0001) were highly correlated. Poor correlation of results between XRF and standard methods make the standard methods preferred.</p> Kyle M. Moller James G. Hartwell Bridget R. Simon-Friedt Mark J. Wilson Jeffrey K. Wickliffe ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-20 2018-06-20 8 2 139 149 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.010 Saying Yes to the Precautionary Principle https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/581 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>In <em>A Precautionary Tale: How One Small Town Banned Pesticides, Preserved Its Food Heritage, and Inspired a Movement,</em> Philip Ackerman-Leist tells the story of Mals, in Northern Italy. He does it in a way that makes the reader feel as if they have visited a very special place and an equally singular moment in time. Just as notably, this biography of place holds a steady eye to turns in elegant lan­guage. The title explains what happens in the book. The combination of the humanistic details and <em>how</em> the story is told, however, makes for a contem­porary socio-agricultural fairy-tale (if such a genre can exist), complete with a supplemental chapter at the end of the book called “An Activist’s Primer: How To Push Back on Pesticides At Home” (pp. 195–199)...</p> Darcy Mullen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-07 2018-06-07 8 2 157 159 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.004 The Food Sovereignty Project https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/585 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>In <em>The Politics of Food Sovereignty: Concept, Practice and Social Movements, </em>editors Annie Shattuck, Christina Schiavoni, and Zoe VanGelder bring together some of the seminal contributions of the Yale McMillan Center Agrarian Studies Program’s 2013 conference focused on food sovereignty (“Food Sovereignty: A Critical Dialogue”). These proceedings were originally published in a special issue of the journal <em>Globalizations</em> (volume 12, issue 4, 2015). This book is valuable in general as it dis­cusses the upcoming challenges and contradictions of food sovereignty, a rising concept and political movement in the Global South and North. Con­trasting with the food sovereignty literature to date, which has mainly focused on the Global South (from which food sovereignty movements have emerged), this book shows how the original idea has expanded to encompass the Global North and urban communities. This book includes cases studies from the U.S., Canada, Russia, Peru, and Venezuela, demonstrating that many types of sovereignties may exist and coexist at different scales, which is a big challenge....</p> Salma Loudiyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-07 2018-06-07 8 2 161 163 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.011 Three-year Case Study of National Organizations Participating in a Nutrition Cohort https://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/583 <p>Improving food access is a complex challenge, and a broad range of U.S. nonprofit organizations are working to create positive change. In an attempt to amplify the impact of a single organization, foun­dations have begun funding collaboratives of mul­tiple, high-achieving organizations. This three-year case study documents the successes, challenges, and recommendations of the funder-initiated but grantee-driven Nutrition Cohort. The Cohort, initiated and funded by a foundation, includes six nutrition-focused member organiza­tions, and was evaluated by a university partner (Tufts University). Study data from three annual waves of collection were triangulated using (1) key informant inter­views with Cohort members and Foundation staff, (2) a survey of Cohort members, and (3) review of documents about or created by Cohort organiza­tions. Over the study period the primary reported success of the Cohort was its commitment to work together as a “learning collaborative.” Crucial changes over the study period included enhanced trust and relationship building and promising shifts in perceptions surrounding the necessity of meet­ing attendance. This study also highlights additional benefits of the Cohort’s formation and growth across the three-year period, including organiza­tional capacity building, improved fundraising strategies, and enhanced community impact. Study findings have implications for the practice of food systems development and may provide guidance for other foundations interested in starting similar collaboratives.</p> Sarah A. Amin Megan Lehnerd Sean B. Cash Christina D. Economos Jennifer M. Sacheck ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-04 2018-06-04 8 2 123 137 10.5304/jafscd.2018.082.009