Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD),</strong> ISSN 2152-0801, is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an open access, online-only journal; all readers may download, share, or print any articles as long as proper attribution is given, in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems, a project of the Center for Transformative Action en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> The Importance of Vision in Food System Transformation <p>Despite growing calls for food system transforma­tion, the need to develop a vision to guide that transformation is sometimes overlooked. Vision is essential to inspire, mobilize, and keep a collective of people on track toward their goals. Individual visions can be exhilarating, but the visions that create change are taken up by large groups or movements of movements. A vision is a beginning for transformation, but it requires policy that enables it to be enacted, ideally through democratic processes. The vision, buttressed by policy and democratic governance, is what determines where people are able to buy food, how much they pay, whether farmers earn decent incomes, and whether the food is healthy. Without vision, policies are likely to be incoherent or to work at cross-purposes, as has happened in the farm bill and the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy. A range of visions generated at different scales, from autonomous community to state to region, can serve as examples for people committed to food system transformation.</p> Molly Anderson Copyright (c) 2019 The Author 2019-09-16 2019-09-16 9 1 1 6 10.5304/jafscd.2019.09A.001 IN THIS ISSUE: Open Call Papers <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>In this summer issue of JAFSCD, we offer a smattering of data-driven papers and food systems policy analysis. Some of this work is still in progress, so we are publishing results in the form of briefs. We look forward to seeing expanded research on these preliminary findings!</p> Duncan Hilchey Copyright (c) 2019 The Author 2019-08-28 2019-08-28 9 1 1 2 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.047 Making Place for Local Food: Reflections on Institutional Procurement and the Alberta Flavour Learning Lab <p>Part case study, part reflective essay, this paper examines questions of place and scale in relation­ship to local food initiatives and, in particular, institutional procurement. A recent emphasis on “place-based” rather than “local” food systems presents an opportunity to ask, What would local food look like here? The Canadian province of Alberta is a unique place defined by a set of geographical, historical, and cultural relationships and connections around food. Through the case of the Alberta Flavour Learning Lab (Alberta Flavour), an institutional procurement initiative focused on “scaling-up” local food, we discuss how an increased emphasis on context and place acti­vates strategic directions for thinking about food system change. We consider Alberta Flavour as a site of strategic localism that involves actively craft­ing a scale of local food that functions within a particular context. Rather than reinforcing divides between conventional and alternative food systems, Alberta Flavour interfaces between the broader values of the local food movement and the current realities of Alberta’s agri-food landscape and cul­ture. We argue that the initiative’s hybrid and prag­matic approach to “getting more local food on more local plates,” while not radical, nonetheless contributes to positive food system change through “transformative incrementalism” (Buchan, Cloutier, &amp; Friedman, in press).</p> Michael Granzow Mary Beckie Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-08-26 2019-08-26 9 1 1 15 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.042 Syilx Perspective on Original Foods: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>We’re a part of this land, and a necessary part of it. The land needs us, and the planet loves us, and we don’t know how to be a part of that anymore, in a real sense, in a physical sense. A coming back to that is something that we as humans have to figure out together.</p> <p><em>—Lax̌lax̌tkʷ, Dr. Jeannette Armstrong (quoted in Hall, 2007)</em></p> <p><strong>Where It All Begins</strong></p> <p>What is your first memory of being on the land? Is it picking berries? Digging up carrots in the garden? Maybe it’s fishing with your dad. Take a moment and let the memory fill your senses. This is what “place-based” means. It means remember­ing where we come from so that we may under­stand more fully where we are today.</p> <p>I come from the Okanagan Nation. My people, the Syilx/Okanagan, are a transboundary tribe sep­arated at the 49th parallel by the border between Canada and the United States. Our Nation com­prises seven member communities in the Southern Interior of British Columbia and the Colville Confederated Tribes in Washington. We share the same land, the same <em>nsyilxc</em><em>әn</em> language, culture, and customs. We are a distinct and sovereign Nation. We are deeply rooted in our land and waters. Our territory is a diverse and beautiful landscape of deserts and lakes, alpine forests and endangered grasslands that extends over 17 million acres (69,000 square kilometers) from just north of Revelstoke, BC, south to the vicinity of Wilbur, Washington. Today we con­tinue to assert our juris­diction and responsibility over the stewarding of our lands. Our <em>nsyilxc</em><em>әn</em> language and our Syilx/Okanagan culture respect­fully honor the natural laws of the <em>tmix</em><em><sup>w</sup></em><a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a>—that which gives us life. . . .</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> <em>tmix<sup>w</sup></em> is the sacred life force of all living things.</p> Pauline Terbasket Sandra Shields Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-08-25 2019-08-25 9 1 1 6 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.016 Place-Based Food and Farming Systems: Reconnecting People with Purpose and Place <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>We are living through a time of fundamental change in human society, as is becoming increasingly clear. Climate change, fossil energy depletion, loss of biodiversity, and growing social and economic equity all threaten the future of human civilization. Only the most adamant deniers fail to accept the necessity for change. The primary point of contention seems to be whether the cur­rent global challenges can be met by transitioning to a new phase of <em>economic</em> development or instead will require a fundamental transformation to a new era of <em>human</em> development.</p> <p>Defenders of economic growth as the primary indicator of progress tend to place their faith in future technological developments that will be motivated by economic incentives. As the chal­lenges of climate change and fossil energy deple­tion grow more critical and are better understood, economic incentives for the development of tech­nologies to mitigate the negative impacts on society will increase. Market economies respond to scar­city. As clean air and clean energy become scarcer, they become more economically valuable. Greater economic incentives will provide motivation for new technologies to mitigate climate change and develop substitutes for fossil energy. Whenever public policies are deemed necessary, “market-based” solutions are favored over government regulations and restraints. . . .</p> John Ikerd Copyright (c) 2019 The Author 2019-08-25 2019-08-25 9 1 1 10 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.017 Local Motivations, Regional Implications: Scaling from Local to Regional Food Systems in Northeastern North Carolina <p>In communities across North America, organiza­tions have launched local food system initiatives as a response to the depredations of the globalized agri-food economy; however, they increasingly find that they cannot achieve their desired impacts or sustain their ventures by operating solely within their home communities. Consequently, they embark on regional food system development initiatives. Drawing upon the experiences of 41 organizations—including Working Land­scapes, a grassroots nonprofit that two authors of this paper direct—this paper examines emerging regional food initiatives in the rural, economically distressed region of northeastern North Carolina. We eluci­date characteristics that differentiate regional initia­tives from the same organizations’ local activities. We find that regional initiatives are motivated by organizations’ strategic needs, which are highly variable in spatial scale, largely uncoordi­nated with each other, and not yet successful in fully achieving their goals. Drawing upon this analysis, we identify opportunities to increase the effectiveness of regional food system initiatives by increasing shared understandings of these initia­tives and advancing region-scale planning.</p> Gabriel Cumming Sophie Kelmenson Carla Norwood Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-08-25 2019-08-25 9 1 1 17 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.041 Where Have All the Direct-Marketing Farms Gone? <p>Food system researchers and practitioners have used the U.S. Census of Agriculture historically as a bellwether to measure changes in the direct-marketing sector. The U.S. Department of Agricul­ture has made considerable improvements in meas­uring this sector in recent years, which formed the basis for the phrasing of the 2017 Census of Agri­culture direct-marketing questions. While the new ques­tions make it challenging to infer direct-marketing trends between 2012 and 2017, the 2017 Census of Agriculture data nonetheless reveals a considerable decline in the number of farms selling directly to consumers and wholesalers in the U.S. We discuss possible explanations for this decline and implica­tions for the direct-marketing sector.</p> Jeffrey O'Hara Matthew Benson Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-08-23 2019-08-23 9 1 31 37 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.046 A Place-based Turn in Multifunctional Agriculture: The Case of Italy's Garfagnana Region <p class="JBodyText">The Garfagnana region of Tuscany has witnessed a resurgence in the small-scale farming sector. Rooted in a historical practice of multifunctional agriculture, over the last decade family farmers and local institutions have increasingly focused on place-based development initiatives, such as reval­orizing native livestock breeds and promoting agroecological practices, as ways to strengthen small-scale agriculture and the local rural economy. This place-based turn is now reshaping the devel­opment trajectories of many family farms and communities in Garfagnana.</p> <p class="JBodyText">Drawing on qualitative field research con­ducted in 2015, this paper utilizes the sociological conceptual lenses of multifunctional agriculture and place-based development to analyze three case-study farms, each with different production sys­tems and territorial relations. Multifunctional agri­culture theory is used to analyze how farming prac­tices in the three case-studies represent a range of adaptive shifts away from productionist trends and toward a more diversified farming approach. Then place-based theory is used to demonstrate how these multifunctional agriculture practices relate to the distinct socio-ecological landscape of Gar­fagnana, uniquely rooting these farms in the terri­tory. This article ultimately examines how new forms of multifunctional agriculture are fostering a place-based food and agriculture system in central Italy and how this approach can strengthen family farming and rural communities.</p> Jordan Treakle Copyright (c) 2019 The Author 2019-08-23 2019-08-23 9 1 1 17 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.039 A Mixed-methods Examination of the Geospatial and Sociodemographic Context of a Direct-to-Consumer Food System Innovation <p>Spatial context may be important to direct to con­sumer (DTC) programs aimed at improving fresh fruit and vegetable access for low-income individu­als. The purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and geospatial context (distance to pickup sites, number and density of proximal food retail outlets, etc.) surrounding community supported agriculture (CSA) pickup locations in relation to low-income customer residential loca­tions, and to synthesize this information with inter­view-derived perspectives on the challenges and opportunities of the pickup location from DTC producers and customers. This in-depth study examined cost-offset community supported agri­culture (CO-CSA) operations across four U.S. states (New York, North Carolina, Vermont, and Washington) and varying pickup sites (<em>n</em>=23), with pickup operational decisions determined by farm­ers (<em>n</em>=12). Physical addresses of farms, CO-CSA customers, and pickup sites were collected and geocoded. Geographic information systems (GIS) was used to examine road network distances for pickup locations across the study sites. Demo­graphic information at the census block level (e.g., percent racial minority, percent poverty level) was obtained for all study sites. Descriptive statistics were generated for geospatial variables. In-depth interviews with farmers and focus groups with CO-CSA customers were conducted to understand experiences with the CO-CSA in terms of physical access of pickup sites. We found that pickup sites were an average of 6.2 miles (10 kilometers) from customers’ homes, and on average, further than the supermarket (2.9 miles or 4.7 km). Farmers reported their efforts to select convenient pickup locations for low-income customers, though CO-CSA customers expressed mixed levels of accessi­bility. Spatial inaccessibility and differences in soci­odemographic data for customer versus pickup may explain perceived inaccessibility for some cus­tomers. These findings may help inform future approaches to plan and evaluate DTC operations targeting low-income individuals by consider­ing geospatial context and stakeholder experiences.</p> Jared McGuirt Marilyn Sitaker Stephanie Jilcott Pitts Alice Ammerman Jane Kolodinsky Rebecca Seguin-Fowler Copyright (c) 2019 The Authors 2019-08-23 2019-08-23 9 1 1 19 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.038 Early Lessons From The Food Commons <p>The Food Commons is an agro-ecological approach to local and regional food in which the health of employees, the community, and the commons are considered holistically. Food Commons Fresno is operationalizing the model with wholesale, food box, hub, commissary, and farming businesses managed through a linked for-benefit corporation and a community trust. Aside from typical start-up challenges, the key hurdles include the cultural and economic unfamiliarity with ecological models and relational operating systems.</p> Jamie Harvie Copyright (c) 2019 The Author 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 9 1 1 11 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.045