Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD),</strong> ISSN 2152-0801, is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an open access, online-only journal; all readers may download, share, or print any articles as long as proper attribution is given, in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems, a project of the Center for Transformative Action en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> Communing with Bees: A Whole-of-Community Approach to Address Crisis in the Anthropocene http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/697 <p>We are currently facing myriad socio-ecological crises, from global climate change to resource depletion to the loss of dozens of species every day. Despite a longstanding and impassioned environmental movement, these problems persist and are worsening. The extent and degree of human-induced change on the planet is significant enough to have placed us in a new geological age: the Anthropocene. Three perspectives are engaged as a way to understand this new era and address our fractured human-nature relationship: (1) polit­ical ecology, (2)&nbsp;the ecological humanities, and (3) the informal economy. An exploration of inter­secting themes leads to the start of a new theo­retical contribution, which manifests at the convergence of theories: a “whole-of-community” approach. This whole-of-community approach is one that is concerned with both inter-human and interspecies relationships to move us towards communities that are place-based, integrated, participatory, and grounded in eco-social justice and equity. Pollinating bees are used as an illus­trative example of how to achieve this vision. Bees can be both a bridge and gateway. As a bridge, they can provide a way of (re)connecting human and nonhuman nature and as a gateway, they can guide humans to a deeper understanding and connection with urban natures. Reconciling humans with the rest of the biotic community through place-based initiatives is possible by fundamentally and radically expanding our current framing of the concept of community.</p> Jennifer Marshman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-16 2019-05-16 9 1 1 24 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.029 THE ECONOMIC PAMPHLETEER: A "Green New Deal" for Farm and Food Policy http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/696 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>I made the case for a “new mandate for farm and food policy” in a 2015 <em>Economic Pamphleteer</em> column—concluding that “Food sovereignty is the logical public policy mandate to support agricul­tural sustainability and a sustainable future for humanity” (Ikerd, 2015, p. 13). The Green New Deal, a 2019 congressional resolution, now pro­vides a logical framework for a policy mandate to secure food sovereignty (116<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;Congress, 2019).</p> <p>The Green New Deal obviously will confront vigorous opposition. Already, claims have been made that it would decimate animal agriculture in order to mitigate climate change. It has also been widely characterized as socialism and a threat to democracy. Support and opposition likely will be divided along political party lines. They shouldn’t be. The core values reflected in Green New Deal and in food sovereignty are Democratic, Repub­lican, and America values. . . .</p> John Ikerd ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-14 2019-05-14 9 1 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.008 Devastation and Celebration: Digging into Culinary Roots, Race, and Place http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/695 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>If you don’t already follow Michael Twitty (@koshersoul on Twitter), you are missing out on reflections and extended commentary on his powerful and acclaimed book, <em>The Cooking Gene: A Journey Through African American Culinary History in the Old South</em>. On October 11, 2018, the author tweeted, “The Cooking Gene is a culinary Roots. I wanted other families in African America and the African Atlantic to see ways they could do similar work. I wanted to introduce my country to [its] Black Southern culinary heritage and West Africans to their cousins.” He clarifies, “My book is NOT a cookbook. It is a food memoir plus culinary history plus genealogical detective story with recipes. . . . 21 or so.”</p> <p>This concise meta-analysis allows details and treasures of the 425 pages of text, including a new afterword, to fall into sharper relief. Of his winding and comprehensive book, Twitty writes in the author’s note<em>, </em>“If it were possible to give a linear, orderly, soup to nuts version of my story or any of my family’s without resorting to genre gymnastics, I would have considered it. Instead, I am pleased with the journey as it has revealed itself to me” (p.&nbsp;427). . . .</p> Yona Sipos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-14 2019-05-14 9 1 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.003 A Food Hub to Address Healthy Food Access Gaps: Residents' Preferences http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/694 <p>Interventions aimed at improving access to healthy food in low-income communities should consider the preferences of residents. Household food shop­pers in two urban, low-income communities were asked about their preferences for vendors at, and qualities of, a potential nearby food hub. Universally, participants preferred availability of whole foods, primarily fruits and vegetables. They also favored cleanliness, quality, and affordability. The demographics and preferences of potential customers raise central issues that would need to be integrated into the development of a food hub, namely affordability (likely through subsidization), attention to accommodation and cultural accessibility, and programming that builds community.</p> Jill K. Clark Chaturia Rouse Ashwini R. Sehgal Mary Bailey Bethany A. Bell Stephanie N. Pike Patricia A. Sharpe Darcy A. Freedman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-01 2019-05-01 9 1 1 10 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.010 Community-Based Food Waste Modeling and Planning Framework for Urban Regions http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/691 <p>Food waste management (FWM) is a growing challenge in urban regions. Despite increasing concerns about the ensuing environmental pres­sure, economic inefficiency, and social disparity, quantitative studies of FWM are still limited. This study proposes a scalable model of food waste generation and community-based planning frame­work that aims to provide data references and policy strategies that help transform urban chal­lenges of FWM into opportunities. In contrast to the existing tools and programs that only focus on large generators (e.g., supermarkets), this study proposes an inclusive approach that also includes small generators (e.g., convenience stores and restaurants) and pairs food waste generators with local users for food reuse and recovery. The generic model was implemented in a case study in Chicago, where residents were found to generate nearly twice as much food waste as businesses on an annual basis. The Chicago case study also demonstrates the spatial mismatch between food waste generators and potential users, suggesting the need of system-wide coordination and planning as well as the inventory modeling at the community level.</p> Ning Ai Junjun Zheng ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-30 2019-04-30 9 1 1 20 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.009 A Food Tourism Textbook Served in Four Courses http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/692 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>I was packing my suitcase to fly to Italy for the 1<sup>st</sup>&nbsp;World Congress on Agritourism when a large brown envelope showed up in my mailbox. I rip­ped open the package to find Susan L. Slocum and Kynda R. Curtis’s new textbook, <em>Food and Agricul­tural Tourism: Theory and Best Practice</em>. Perfect reading for my flight to Europe!</p> <p>Flying over the Atlantic Ocean, I flipped through the book and was immediately drawn in by the colorful case studies of food tourism around the world. The study questions for students had me hooked: How would you define authentic food from your area? How does globalization lead to specialization in agricultural production? What does “rice for life” mean? How can the Rattlesnake Hills Wine Trail enhance the visitor experience? . . .</p> Lisa Chase ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-30 2019-04-30 9 1 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.001 All Roads Lead to the New Food Activism http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/693 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p><em>The New Food Activism: Opposition, Cooperation, and Collective Action</em> reminds us that understanding food activism in the world of alternative facts and post-truth politics requires breaking off with com­monly established norms, criticisms, and contro­versies. With an awareness that there are conno­tations associated with “food justice” and “neo­liberalism” that are quintessential in discussing food matters, Alison Hope Alkon and Julie Guthman propose that food activism is fertile ground for the growth of reflexive, innovative, and immersive food politics. Departing from the view that alter­native food systems have been described as apolitical and short-sighted, this edited volume suggests that food activism embodies politics and strategic action. This new sort of food activism seeks to build alliances and coalitions that go beyond the current notion of alternatives in describing transformative changes in food systems. The book is divided into three parts, each unpack­ing different possibilities for the role of activism in reshaping food systems. . . .</p> Mustafa Hasanov ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-30 2019-04-30 9 1 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2019.091.002 IN THIS ISSUE: The Power of Food Justice http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/690 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>In this winter-spring issue, we feature a number of papers that illustrate <em>The Power of Food Justice, </em>including two papers about young African American farmers as well as the perspectives of food project stakeholders of color and of farmworkers. As depicted on our cover, farmers of color are growing as a share of all farmers in the United States, despite daunting challenges for these intrepid <em>agripreneurs</em>.</p> <p>We begin the issue with columns that raise two very provocative questions. In <em>A New Day for Dairy</em>? <strong>Teresa Mares</strong> and guest co-columnist <strong>Brendan O’Neill</strong> continue to highlight the work of the grassroots group Migrant Justice and the Milk with Dignity program to bring economic justice to dairy farmworkers in Vermont. Can a price premium for milk produced under fair labor conditions move the needle in a positive direction for the ailing dairy industry? By the way, in her newly published book, <em>Life on the Other Border: Farmworkers and Food Justice in Vermont</em> (University of California Press), Teresa describes the difficulties of immigrant farmworkers living near the Canadian border. . . .</p> Duncan Hilchey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-07 2019-04-07 9 1 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2019.084.024 Challenges and Sustainability of Wheat Production in a Levantine Breadbasket http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/689 <p>The farming sector in Lebanon, particularly grains production, is threatened by environmental, socio-economic, and political factors that have led to a high dependence on food imports, thereby under­mining national food security. This study focuses on wheat production in its natural Mediterranean habitat (the Levant) and its sustainability in the West Bekaa through value chain analysis that aims to identify constraints and opportunities in the production system. The analysis is based on a survey at the level of the producers to identify the planted wheat varieties, wheat production systems, land tenure systems, marketing channels, socio-economic factors of farmers, and different types of wheat by-products. This study reveals important challenges facing the sustainability of wheat production, including farmers resorting to hybrid wheat varieties, the dependence of farmers on wheat subsidies as an incentive, the lack of land tenure security, and the virtual absence of well-organized cooperatives. On the other hand, our evidence suggests a strong dependence among wheat farmers on integrated production systems that promote agricultural sustainability. We con­clude this report with recommendations to secure the sustainability of wheat production in West Bekaa in particular, and in Lebanon in general.</p> Salwa Tohmé Tawk Mabelle Chedid Ali Chalak Sarah Karam Shadi Kamal Hamadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-03 2019-04-03 9 1 193 209 10.5304/jafscd.2019.084.011 Understanding Food Labels http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/685 <p>Have you ever made a purchase based on a food label? Everyone gives food labels a cursory glance, but for the many consumers who wish to make purchasing decisions that reflect their personal and social values, food labels are critical. How do you decipher the myriad of new symbols, logos, certifi­cation claims, and sometimes meaningless informa­tion presented in today’s marketplace? How do you know which labels contain statements that are not regulated by governmental agencies? Can you differentiate third-party certifications from private company claims? In this commentary, we categorize and review a broad array of new label varieties, claims, certifications, and regulations. We then describe a new online, interactive resource for con­sumers to help them improve their understanding of food labels. Finally, we inventory additional teaching tools and resources that may provide educators with other food label curricula for consumers.</p> Carol Hamilton Brian Raison ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 9 1 13 22 10.5304/jafscd.2019.084.022