Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj <p>The&nbsp;<strong><em>Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development</em><em>&nbsp;</em>(JAFSCD) </strong>is an <strong>open access, international, peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>journal</strong> focused on the practice and applied research interests of agriculture and food systems development professionals. JAFSCD emphasizes best practices and tools related to the planning, community economic development, and ecological protection of local and regional agriculture and food systems, and works to bridge the interests of practitioners and academics. Articles are published online as they are approved, and are gathered into quarterly issues for indexing purposes. JAFSCD is an online-only journal; subscribers may download or print any articles in accordance with the Creative Commons <a title="CC BY 4.0" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a> license.</p> Thomas A. Lyson Center for Civic Agriculture and Food Systems, a project of the Center for Transformative Action en-US Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 2152-0801 <p>The copyright to all content published in JAFSCD belongs to the author(s). It is licensed as <a title="Creative Commons BY 4.0 license" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This license determines how you may reprint, copy, distribute, or otherwise share JAFSCD content.</p> Economic Analysis of Local Food Procurement in Southwest Florida's Farm to School Programs http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/644 <p>Farm to school (F2S) programs aim to educate people about food and farming, to increase the availability of fresh, nutritious foods, and to improve health outcomes among children. Nationally, all states have school districts that self-identify as farm-to-school program participants. National and regional food procurement systems account for the majority of food purchased by National School Lunch Program participants, but school foodservice authorities (SFA) who purchase food from farmers often do so in the context of strengthening their farm-to-school program (U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA], n.d.-b). A greater number of local supply chain participants benefit when food is sourced in state (locally) rather than out-of-state because more money ends up in the pockets of local producers and distribu­tors. Local fruit and vegetable producers and SFAs interested in developing business partnerships for local procurement would benefit from recommen­dations on menu-appropriate fresh market prod­ucts, volume, and purchase prices. However, detailed data sets from SFAs are uncommon, limiting opportunities to advance procurement efforts. The objective for this project was to begin developing local procurement recommendations for other Florida school districts based on the purchasing history and experiences of the Sarasota County School District (SCSD).</p> <p>In 2014, Sarasota County, Florida, received a USDA F2S implementation grant, affording it the opportunity to develop its local procurement efforts. One deliverable from that project was a robust data set of school food purchases over a two-year period. With permission SCSD, we analyzed seasonal purchase variations and market prices of local and out-of-state fresh fruits, vege­tables, and egg purchases for 38 public schools in the SCSD. In this paper, we present an approach to estimate the potential of local procurement viability in the context of an emerging districtwide F2S program and recommend system changes based on the success of procurement efforts in SCSD and surrounding school districts in Southwest Florida.</p> Jonathan Adam Watson Danielle Treadwell Ray Bucklin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 8 3 1 24 10.5304/jafscd.2018.083.011 Gritty Philosophical Thinking about Food Justice Doing http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/645 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>What do academics who work in the humani­ties and social sciences have to offer to food justice, if anything? An academic colleague and friend in civic studies once posed this question to me. The 33 editors and contributing authors who produced this book aim to offer concrete examples of potential answers to this question.</p> <p>However, none of these authors, my civic studies colleague, nor I are in a good position to lead Sustainable Agricultural Systems proposals for USDA’s Agricultural and Food Research Initiative (USDA AFRI). This new program area, announced in April 2018, will fund US$10-million, five-year projects that aim, for example, to increase use efficiency of three crop inputs (water, nitrogen and phosphorus) by 50%, reduce crop losses by 20%, or reduce food-borne illnesses to 8.5 cases per 100,000 Americans each year.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a></p> <p>These technical goals have clear and practical food production applications. The first two also attend to the right of future generations to have enough to eat. However, today they do little or nothing to promote food justice. Sufficient food supply is not a problem yet. However, inequitable distribution of the means of food production, exchange, and consumption are current problems; and within the U.S., this maldistribution closely, and unjustly, follows lines of class, gender, and race.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> <a href="https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/rfa/FY-2018-AFRI-SAS.pdf">https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/rfa/FY-2018-AFRI-SAS.pdf</a>; <a href="https://nifa.usda.gov/resource/afri-sas-faq#ChallengeAreas">https://nifa.usda.gov/resource/afri-sas-faq#ChallengeAreas</a></p> Christine M. Porter ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 8 3 1 4 10.5304/jafscd.2018.083.009 Mobilizing Food: A Review of Building Nature’s Market http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/641 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Miller’s (2017) <em>Building Nature’s Market</em> introduces the American natural foods movement to social movement studies, highlight­ing its challenge to the prevailing social order related to food, consumption, health, state author­ity, and individualism. This movement is concerned with more than just food; it tackles no less than society’s values about progress as it is generally tied to industrialization and technical innovation. The book’s primary thesis is the argument that the natural foods movement has been propelled not only by activist altruism and perseverance, but also through the innovativeness of savvy capitalist entrepreneurs and corporations....</p> Corey Lee Wrenn ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-04 2018-11-04 8 3 1 5 10.5304/jafscd.2018.083.010 Rethinking Control: Complexity in Agri-environmental Governance Research http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/642 <p><em>First paragraph:</em></p> <p>Discourse on governance always faces the challenge of describing, and usually simpli­fying, the many voices who formally and informally participate in controlling, and therefore governing, shared outcomes for community members both locally and globally (Callon, Lascoumes, &amp; Barthe, 2009). Environmental and agricultural governance faces this problem redoubled, as outcomes and governing bodies cross boundaries between spe­cies, affecting humans and nonhumans, animals and otherwise (Latour, 2017; Tsing, 2015). Ad­dress­ing incoher­ence, difference, and complexity (Law, 2004) is a general research concern among social scientists who wish to avoid subjugating otherwise margin­alized participants. By looking to measurements and research methods that arise from studies outside politics and economics, actors that would be hidden or silenced by political economic critiques and metrics may become visi­ble. For engaged governance research, the benefits of this are clear: a more inclusive social science of govern­ing stakeholders. This edited collection brings together diverse international scholarship in agri-food social science research to rethink the frame­work of agri-environmental governance. The edi­tors frame the selection of essays as efforts to look to the mess of stakeholders, legislators, grow­ers, eaters, food councils, lands, crops, assessments, and so forth as a governing assemblage. By doing this, researchers are able to explore meanings and social experiences that diverge (although do not entirely separate) from neoliberal (e.g., large, cor­porate) frameworks in ways that complicate the governing underpinnings that are continually at work <em>(re)territorializing</em> the world of agriculture, food, and environment policy and praxis....</p> Matt Comi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-04 2018-11-04 8 3 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2018.083.015 Ending Hunger is Possible – Institutional Change Matters http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/643 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>Jahi Chappell continuously begs the question: “Who benefits?” He shares his thoughts about hunger and our food systems in his book <em>Beginning to End Hunger: Food and the Environment in Belo Hori­zonte, Brazil, and Beyond</em>. In six chapters, he outlines his analytical background and tells the story about an extraordinary effort to end hunger in the city of Belo Horizonte and its surrounding villages.</p> <p>The book is preceded by a foreword by Frances Moore Lappé, who encourages us to rethink common assumptions as part of the solution. In the introduction (chapter 1), Chappell introduces institutions and epistemology, and coins the terms <em>Minority World</em> (for instance, wealthier areas such as the U.S. and the E.U.—where rela­tively few people live) and <em>Majority World</em> (where the majority of the world’s population lives, in economies such as Brazil’s). He reminds us to be careful when adopting food security indicators: do not take information out of context, but account for the multifaceted and intertwined nature of the subject. Then he shares a list of eight basic propo­sitions about global food systems (although he unfortunately does not reveal how he arrived at these). The major message is: there is enough food in most places at most times, and perceived scarcity and unhealthy patterns are often a question of profitability and the institutions (the rules, norms and values) that govern societal behavior....</p> Marianna Siegmund-Schultze ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-04 2018-11-04 8 3 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2018.083.019 DIGGING DEEPER: New Thinking on “Regional” http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/639 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>In 2010, we presented a set of arguments and assumptions supporting the value of regional thinking and the regional scale in food systems work in papers that we wrote under the aegis of the Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Working Group (Clancy &amp; Ruhf, 2010; Ruhf &amp; Clancy, 2010). We pointed out that local food has resonated with the public, producers, and marketers, and that it has inspired many supportive public policies. We also talked about some of the drawbacks of the focus on “local”—its varied definitions, and its short­comings as a framework for sustainable and resilient food systems.</p> <p>We described how regions, which go beyond the local scale, play a unique and essential role in meeting the food needs of a population. Regions also play an important role in sustaining food chain participants and the natural resource base in the face of environmental, social, economic, and climate uncertainty. To us, “regional” signifies a substantial volume and variety of products that can more fully address demand when compared with “local” foods.”&nbsp;</p> <p>Regional implies a larger scale, often multistate, but is not strictly limited to a radius or state bound­ary. We believe that the regional scale is one of multiple scales—along with local, national and global—that will produce food for the American diet into the future. Regional-scale food systems consider at a landscape scale certain needs and limitations, such as transportation efficiencies, broad land use and protection, energy use, pro­duc­tion systems, and climate. Using a regional scale provides an essential context for addressing cul­tural dynamics and differences, natural and human-made disturbances, and diversity and equity chal­lenges that cannot be adequately encompassed at the local scale....</p> Kate Clancy Kathryn Z. Ruhf ##submission.copyrightStatement## CC BY 4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 8 3 1 5 10.5304/jafscd.2018.083.008 Community Kitchen Freezing and Vacuum Packaging http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/640 <p><em>First paragraphs:</em></p> <p>In a 2016 study of fresh food loss on Vermont farms, Salvation Farms Director Theresa Snow and her colleague offered insights into farmer production problems. They extrapolated from their survey results that about 14.3 million pounds (6.5 million kg) of vegetable and berry losses occur on Vermont farms every year. Farm food problems included market saturation of fresh zucchini, lack of available help, not enough storage, blemishes on edible produce, fewer customers at farmers mar­kets, and deterioration of produce in storage while waiting for a future market. Farm fresh produce waste problems, however, can be a training opportunity for community kitchens.</p> <p>My interest in frozen food processing began after working on a community supported agricul­ture (CSA) vegetable farm in the late 1990s, where excess produce was composted, left to rot, or fed to pigs. To me, a retired farmer and former family and consumer science teacher, these farm food waste issues shouted opportunities for addressing today’s food waste and healthy food challenges through freezing.</p> <p>My response to this waste was to design and build a kitchen in 2000 (inspected by New York State Agriculture and Markets) to explore value-added processing. The next year the Cornell Food Venture Center approved several frozen and vacuum-packed procedures I had developed. Boil-in-bags are used for blanching vegetables. After cooling, the vegetable broth is drained off and frozen to use to cook grains or to include in soup kits. Cut vegetable pieces are weighed, put into labeled 3 ml bags, vacuum sealed, and frozen. The vegetables are combined with separately packed cooked dry beans, cooked whole grains, savory sauces, and spices as freezer meal kits....</p> Anna Dawson ##submission.copyrightStatement## CC BY 4.0 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 8 3 1 3 10.5304/jafscd.2018.083.020 Food Policy Councils and Local Governments: Creating Effective Collaboration for Food Systems Change http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/626 <p>Drawing data from comparative case studies of 10 California food policy councils (FPCs), this paper describes the nature of the relationships between local governments and FPCs and examines how these relationships support policy-related activities and food systems change. We focus our compari­sons on distinct organizational structures, resource flows, and policy activities. All but one of the 10 councils is organized as a multisector community collaborative, rather than as an independent non­profit organization or a government advisory body. Each includes local government personnel as members and most depend on government resources for their operations, including meeting spaces, facilitation, information, and/or direct funding. All 10 councils feature regular meetings at which information is shared to build awareness, relationships, and trust, all of which can indirectly shape policy agendas and initiatives. This policy relevant work is feasible even for small councils with few resources. FPC leaders can also seize opportunities by considering the stages of the policy process they hope to influence, the types of policy issues they wish to address, the time frame it may take to realize different types of policy goals, and the degree to which they will seek incremental or more fundamental changes. We find that struc­tural autonomy—being organized outside of the government while maintaining strong collabora­tions with the government—helps food policy councils retain their independence while promoting more inclusive policy making processes that link community members to the government.</p> Clare Gupta Dave Campbell Kate Munden-Dixon Jennifer Sowerwine Shosha Capps Gail Feenstra Julia Van Soelen Kim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 8 3 11 28 10.5304/jafscd.2018.08B.006 Navigating Borders: The Evolution of the Cass Clay Food Partners http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/627 <p>The Cass Clay Food Partners is an integrated food network serving Cass County, North Dakota, and Clay County, Minnesota, through the combined work of a food policy council, action network, and steering committee. In this paper, we describe the evolution of the network from project-based work to policy development to a partnership that inte­grates both programs and policy for greater impact. We also highlight the many types of boundaries the network has navigated in order to attain success in advancing alternative food systems for the Red River Valley community. These boundaries include political borders such as the state line between North Dakota and Minnesota, as well as philo­sophical divisions between stakeholders and decision-makers. Lastly, we highlight the pitfalls faced and lessons learned by the network during this process.</p> Abby Gold Noelle Harden ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 8 3 29 38 10.5304/jafscd.2018.08B.010 Planning for a Resilient Urban Food System: A Case Study from Baltimore City, Maryland http://www.foodsystemsjournal.org/index.php/fsj/article/view/628 <p>Many natural and non-natural hazards threaten food security, especially in urban areas where growing populations place extra demands on the food supply. Ensuring stable food security before, during, and after disasters requires resilient food systems that can withstand and recover from disruptions. However, few U.S. cities have considered food systems in disaster preparedness or resilience planning. This reflective case study from the participant-observer perspective examines the process and outcomes of a city-university collaboration to assess and begin to improve the resilience of Baltimore City’s food system. An academic center and municipal department of planning partnered to assess and plan for short- and long-term food system resilience. An Emergency Food Working Group convened for three meetings over three months, resulting in the creation of an emergency food access protocol for acute event response. A broader <em>Baltimore Food System Resilience Advisory Report</em> was then developed based on 36 key-informant interviews with food system stakehold­ers, literature reviews, and geo­graphic information system (GIS) mapping. That report included an assessment of the Baltimore City food system’s vulnerability to hazards, the extent of stakeholder preparedness for food supply disrup­tions, and identified opportunities for enhancing long-term food system resilience. It presented policy recom­mendations for Baltimore and a framework for conceptualizing food system vulnerabilities. Policy recommendations and lessons learned from this planning process can serve as an example for other cities interested in enhancing the resilience of their food system or broadening the scope of their resilience planning.</p> Erin Biehl Sarah Buzogany Kristin Baja Roni A. Neff ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 8 3 39 53 10.5304/jafscd.2018.08B.008